Office of Justice Programs Solutions for Safer Communities - BJA - FY 2013 - Annual Report to Congress

Chapter 1

Reduction of Violent Crime, Improvement of Community Safety, and Support for Public Safety Officers

The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) supports initiatives that address the reduction and prevention of violent crime; the improvement of community safety; and support for public safety officers. BJA initiatives cover smart policing, officer safety, cybercrime, campus safety, crime prevention, and victim-centered programs that leverage support from partners at the state, local, and tribal levels. These efforts provide resources, including grant funding and training and technical assistance (TTA), to criminal justice agencies, their partners, and the communities they serve.

Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant Program

BJA's Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) Program, the leading source of federal justice funding for state and local jurisdictions, provides states, tribes, and local governments with funding necessary to support a range of program areas, including law enforcement; prosecution, indigent defense, and the courts; prevention and education; corrections and community corrections; drug treatment and enforcement; planning, evaluation, and technology improvement; and crime victim and witness initiatives.

BJA continues to support efforts of JAG grantees to invest in strategies that are research- or evidence-based and address their priority needs. Additionally, BJA encourages JAG grantees to engage in strategic planning to guide funding decisions. If such a plan does not exist, BJA strongly encourages state and local jurisdictions to bring all system stakeholders together in the strategic planning process to identify funding gaps and ensure that the impact of JAG funding decisions is considered across the entire criminal justice system. BJA has partnered with the National Criminal Justice Association's National Center for Justice Planning, which offers strategic-planning TTA to JAG's State Administering Agencies.

In FY 2013, BJA made 1,078 local and 57 state awards totaling more than $280 million, including approximately $194 million (including prior year available funds) to states and territories and $87 million to local units of government. JAG awards are up to 4 years in length and funds may be drawn down upfront rather than on a reimbursement basis, allowing recipients to earn interest on their awards and generate additional funding for successful initiatives and future projects.

BJA's JAG Showcase highlights high-performing and innovative JAG-funded programs. FY 2013 accomplishments include:

  • A $461,402 justice information sharing program in Maryland (www.bja.gov/SuccessStoryDetail.aspx?ssid=38) that assists law enforcement and public safety agencies in developing crime analysis and mapping capabilities to identify crime patterns, trends, and areas of concentration so that effective deterrent strategies can be devised.
  • A $464,183 alternative sentencing program in Kentucky (www.bja.gov/SuccessStoryDetail.aspx?ssid=30) that supports the state's Department of Public Advocacy's (DPA) efforts to provide social worker services to indigent criminal defendants who are represented by Kentucky's public defenders. DPA began this pilot program to assess defendants' mental health and substance abuse needs and to plan viable community treatment options to relieve the courts' burden and potentially the burden of custody for corrections and jails.
  • A $214,290 evidence-based program in Pennsylvania (www.bja.gov/SuccessStoryDetail.aspx?ssid=37) to implement the Lethality Assessment Program, which addresses some fundamental issues concerning violence against women.

For more information and resources on BJA's JAG Program, visit www.bja.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?Program_ID=59.

Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Program

BJA launched the Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation (BCJI) Program in 2012 as a part of the Obama Administration's Neighborhood Revitalization Initiative (NRI), which coordinates interagency federal support for state, local, and tribal communities to develop place-based, community-oriented strategies to transform neighborhoods of distress into neighborhoods of opportunity. BCJI contributes to NRI's goals by supporting data- and research-driven projects that build community capacity to create comprehensive strategies that reduce crime and improve community safety.

Each BCJI site assembles partnerships representing a broad cross-section of community stakeholders, including neighborhood residents, local law enforcement, social and human service agencies, housing, education, research partners, and others. These partners then target neighborhoods with hot spots of violent and serious crime and employ data-driven, cross-sector strategies to reduce crime and violence. Thousands of community members across the nation have contributed to BCJI efforts by helping to identify drivers of crime and to shape how law enforcement and community members work together to improve safety.

As the program was newly launched in FY 2012, many of these sites have only just completed planning efforts and begun to implement strategies specific to their neighborhood crime issues. Yet early efforts within BCJI sites are promising. For instance, citizens have turned out to plant flowers and help neighbors clean up blighted properties in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; residents participated in problem-solving training so they could be more informed contributors to hot spot response strategies in Seattle, Washington; and people with criminal backgrounds have secured transitional services in Omaha, Nebraska.

BJA and its TTA partner, the Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), work closely with BCJI grantees. LISC's TTA is organized around several main themes of the BCJI model: using data and research to guide program strategy, engaging community members in shaping crime prevention and revitalization efforts, tackling problems from multiple angles through cross-sector partnerships, and integrating crimecontrol efforts with revitalization strategies.

BCJI is a component of BJA's Smart Suite of programs, which support research/practitioner partnerships to integrate data and evaluation into program models in policing, prosecution, indigent defense, probation, and pretrial initiatives. (See Smart Suite Programs for more information about BJA's Smart Suite.)

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • Fifteen communities, representing the inaugural group of BCJI grantees from FY 2012, launched research-informed and data-driven efforts to reduce crime and address the interconnected challenges of blight and poverty.
  • Fourteen additional communities were awarded grants in FY 2013 to plan, implement, and/or enhance BCJI initiatives.

See below for a map of the 2013 BCJI sites. (It can also be viewed at www.bja.gov/Funding/12-13BCJIAwardsMap.pdf).

For more information and resources on the BCJI Program and the individual sites, visit www.lisc.org/bcji.

BYRNE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INNOVATION PROGRAM
Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Program

Cybercrime

High-tech and electronic crime—often called "cybercrime"—impacts every corner of our nation. It encompasses a full range of crimes, from economic crime such as identify theft, corporate and personal hacking, and fraud; to personal crime such as cyberbullying and cyber stalking; to terrorism and espionage. Federal agencies are well-equipped to address international and interstate threats, but it is the state, local, and tribal agencies that confront this threat on a daily basis. BJA is committed to providing TTA and resources to these agencies to build their expertise and capacity to deal with these crimes.

Since 2011, the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C) has been a key BJA partner in fighting cybercrime. NW3C serves law enforcement agencies by offering 26 specialized investigative and forensic classes in the fields of cybercrime, financial crime, and intelligence analysis (www.nw3c.org/training); technical assistance and investigative support for improved investigations and prosecutions; research on emerging issues (www.nw3c.org/services/research/publications); and resources for justice agency and public awareness of electronic/cyber and other white collar crimes (www.nw3c.org/News).

In FY 2013, NW3C trained 7,235 students from 3,805 agencies during in-person classes and 3,547 students in web-based classes/presentations. These FY 2013 totals include:

  • An Intellectual Property (IP) course created in partnership with the National Association of Attorneys General in 2010. In FY 2013, popularity increased 61 percent over all previous years combined, with 680 investigators and prosecutors attending the IP classes (1,758 attendees since 2010).
  • Mortgage fraud crimes TTA programs that can be customized for targeted audiences. In FY 2013, attendance increased 48 percent over all previous years combined, with 273 students from 122 agencies (521 attendees since 2011).
  • Data analysis and investigative support that provided technical assistance and analytical products for law enforcement to search 12,609 public records and 587 court documents. This effort helped to secure 204 months in criminal sentences and $10.4 million in restitution.
  • A Social Media 101 course (www.nw3c.org/training/specialtytraining/78) that demonstrated dynamic tools and proper procedures for use in online investigation activities. NW3C held 23 classes for 1,238 students from 584 agencies.
  • An Instructor Development Program (www.nw3c.org/training/specialty-training) that equips new instructors to establish effective, sustainable training at local agencies. Feedback indicates at least 277 additional students were trained this year by the new instructors.
  • Training for officers to use proprietary investigative tools such as PerpHound™ (http://perphound.nw3c.org), with 817 students this year (3,544 since 2010), and TUX4N6™ (http://tux4n6.nw3c.org), with 637 students this year (9,067 since 2009).

Response to NW3C training has been positive. New York County District Attorney Cyrus R. Vance, Jr., expressed appreciation of the Instructor Development Program by stating, "Our collaboration with NW3C has allowed for the expansion of my office's Cyber Academy, enabling our in-house instructors to conduct comprehensive, multi-day trainings for law enforcement agencies and prosecutors around the city, state, and country." Another popular resource for officers, the Cell Phone Investigations course, elicited the following comment from Sgt. James Seger of the Prince George's County Police Department, Maryland: "We have used these cell phone skills in almost every case, with over 222 cases this year, as we charge and clear suspects, identify locations, and track missing persons."

For more information and resources on NW3C and BJA's efforts to combat cybercrime, visit www.nw3c.org.

Campus Public Safety

Campus law enforcement agencies vary greatly across the nation's colleges and universities, ranging from full-service police departments (both armed and unarmed) to private security operations and contractual services. Such departments also vary greatly in how they relate to and share information with local and state public safety agencies. BJA improves campus safety by identifying and addressing gaps in training and resources among these agencies. BJA's partners in these efforts include organizations in the field such as the International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators and federal agencies such as the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

National Center for Campus Public Safety

In fall 2013, BJA competitively selected Margolis Healy and Associates (MHA) to create and host the National Center for Campus Public Safety (National Center). The National Center provides TTA and other resources to campus police chiefs, directors of public safety, emergency managers, and key campus safety stakeholders. Its mission is to bring together all forms of campus public safety, professional associations, advocacy organizations, community leaders, and others to improve and expand services to those who are charged with providing a safe environment on the nation's campuses.

The National Center will work with BJA to:

  • Identify and prioritize the needs of the field—especially in the areas of gender and sexual violence on campus (Title IX), firearms on college campuses, and challenges in Clery Act compliance—and develop comprehensive responses.
  • Connect existing federal and non-federal resources with the needs of constituents.
  • Connect major campus public safety entities with one another and with federal agencies to facilitate collaboration and coordination to improve campus public safety.
  • Highlight and promote best and innovative practices specific to campus public safety challenges.
  • Deliver TTA that addresses the specific needs of campus public safety.

For more information and resources from the National Center, visit http://nccpsafety.org.

Best Practices for Campus Crime Prevention

In FY 2013, MHA continued the Developing Evidence-Based Modern Crime Prevention Strategies for Institutions of Higher Education project with key stakeholders in the campus public safety, law enforcement, and prevention communities. The project develops free crime prevention programming, technical assistance materials, and professional networking opportunities for the campus safety community. These resources are meant to identify best practices that can improve the effectiveness of current campus crime prevention programming and to enable institutions to improve student safety, both on and off campus.

FY 2013 accomplishments for this project include the following:

  • Researchers isolated key dimensions of an evidence-based campus crime prevention program and identified 10 campus programs for closer site-visit evaluation.
  • Campus Sentinel, a free app that was launched in May 2012 and is available for download via Google Play and iTunes stores, was upgraded to include additional resources covering gender violence and crime prevention.

Additionally, MHA continued work on its Best Practices for Study Abroad Safety and Security project. International studies potentially put students at much higher risk in terms of their safety and security, but for the most part, institutions of higher learning have not implemented assessment and prevention strategies to address this elevated risk. The project responds to this gap by examining and identifying successful multidisciplinary, evidence-based student travel abroad safety and security assessments, including policies and processes, as models appropriate for institutions of higher education.

Learn more about other MHA campus safety activities at www.margolishealy.com/resources/category/campus_safety.

For more information about BJA's work on enhancing campus safety and security, visit www.bja.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?Program_ID=108.

Officer Safety and Wellness

Preventing Violence Against Law Enforcement and Ensuring Officer Resiliency and Survivability

The Preventing Violence Against Law Enforcement and Ensuring Officer Resiliency and Survivability (VALOR) Program responds to the increase in felonious assaults on law enforcement officers over the past decade, in which there has been an average of 58,930 assaults against officers each year. VALOR is a national officer safety TTA initiative that delivers current, dynamic classroom and web-based training, research, and resources for sworn state, local, and tribal law enforcement officers.

Since the program's launch, 14,424 law enforcement officers have received VALOR training in 103 events in 40 states. In FY 2013, 36 of those events trained more than 4,700 officers. There continues to be a high demand for VALOR across the country.

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • The VALOR web portal (www.valorforblue.org) was updated with improved navigation to enhance user experience.
  • Several online training modules were developed and made available on the VALOR web portal to heighten officer awareness. Topics include foot pursuits and officer-safety indicators.
  • VALOR offers a train-the-trainer component to extend its reach to more law enforcement officers across the United States. The multiplying effect of this format enabled at least 1,200 additional officers to be trained in FY 2013.

To learn more about BJA's VALOR Program, visit www.valorforblue.org.

Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training

The BJA-funded Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training (ALERRT) Center, administered by Texas State University, provides frontline law enforcement officers across the country with advanced scenario-based training to safely and effectively respond to, address, and stop active shooters. ALERRT has trained more than 50,000 law enforcement professionals nationwide since the program was established in 2002.

Responding to the increased demand for active-shooter response training following the 2012 tragedy in Newtown, Connecticut, BJA and the FBI partnered to expedite and broaden the delivery of the Basic Active Shooter Level I curriculum to state and local law enforcement throughout the country. This project—the Active Shooter Response Training Initiative—trained 100 FBI tactical instructors on the Level I curriculum to enable them to teach this course jointly with ALERRT instructors. Teams of two ALERRT and two FBI instructors are now delivering Level I training across the country.

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • Since 2012, the ALERRT program has conducted 115 events, directly training more than 2,600 law enforcement officers.
  • Officers who have completed the ALERRT train-the-trainer course administered 139 indirect ALERRT training programs, reaching an additional 3,600 law enforcement officers.
  • The FBI and numerous states and agencies adopted the ALERRT curricula as their national training standard for active-shooter response.
  • States such as Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, and Maryland adopted the Active Shooter Response Training Initiative model, using FBI and ALERRT instructors to spread this training throughout their states.
  • The ALERRT/FBI partnership initiated 60 active-shooter trainings, reaching almost 1,500 attendees. An additional 10 indirect programs were conducted, training an additional 245 law enforcement officers.
  • The FBI field office in Atlanta established ALERRT in all five regional training academies.

To learn more about ALERRT, visit www.alerrt.org.

To learn more about BJA's Active Shooter Response Training Initiative, visit www.bja.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?Program_ID=106.

Bulletproof Vest Partnership Program

BJA's Bulletproof Vest Partnership (BVP) Program provides funds to state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies to purchase life-saving, bullet- and stab-resistant body armor for sworn law enforcement and corrections officers. The BVP Program grant funds pay for up to 50 percent of the cost of protective vests that meet the current National Institute of Justice's (NIJ) body armor standards. The BVP Program distributes funds on a reimbursement basis—after the protective vests are actually received by the officers and appropriate documentation is submitted.

In FY 2013, BJA awarded a total of $16.3 million to 4,580 state, local, and tribal jurisdictions. These funds will be used to pay for NIJ-compliant protective vests that are purchased before September 30, 2015.

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • More than 94,710 vests were purchased and distributed to officers at an average cost to the BVP Program of only $288 per vest.
  • Vests were directly attributable to saving the lives of at least 17 law enforcement and corrections officers in various states and the District of Columbia, according to data collected and recorded by BJA staff. These successes include the incidents described below:
    • On August 16, 2013, a deputy with the Butler County (Kansas) Sheriff's Office received a new bullet-resistant vest, bought in part with BVP funds. Less than 3 weeks later, while conducting a motor vehicle equipment stop, this deputy was shot in the chest at point-blank range by a subject with an outstanding felony warrant. This would likely have been a deadly encounter without the protective vest.
    • On December 21, 2012, a Pennsylvania State Trooper was shot in the chest while trying to apprehend a person wanted in the killing of three persons. The vest he was wearing, which was purchased in part with BVP funds, is credited with saving his life.

To learn more about BJA's BVP Program, visit http://ojp.gov/bvpbasi/home.html.

RISSafe

A component of BJA's Regional Information Sharing Systems (RISS), RISS Officer Safety Event Deconfliction System (RISSafe) is a deconfliction system that helps to ensure that officers remain safe during police operations. The system helps identify potential conflicts between agencies or officers unknowingly conducting operations—such as raids, controlled buys, and surveillances—in close proximity to each other or that focus on the same suspect at the same time, and it notifies affected parties of identified conflicts prior to engaging in operations. Failure to use RISSafe may result in compromised case integrity, or worse, officers could be unintentionally injured or killed. This system is the only comprehensive, nationwide program that is available to all law enforcement agencies on a 24/7/365 basis.

More than 900,000 operations have been entered since the system's inception, resulting in more than 300,000 identified conflicts. On average, 30 percent of all operations entered have a potential for a law enforcement-related conflict. In FY 2013, more agencies established internal agency policies mandating the use of event deconfliction, and the number of submissions using RISSafe Mobile continued to increase.

The importance of RISSafe is consistently highlighted by positive testimonials from the field, including the following comment from the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)/Camden (New Jersey) High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA): "We process upwards of 5,000 event deconfliction requests annually for approximately 30 agencies in the southeast Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey area…. We do consider RISSafe a critical part of our services to law enforcement participants. It is reliable, adaptive, and easy to employ."

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • 179,770 events were entered into RISSafe, resulting in 73,119 identified conflicts. This represents almost 41 percent of operations entered.
  • The number of RISSafe Watch Centers increased to 24, 18 of which are operated by organizations other than RISS, such as state agencies, fusion centers, and HIDTAs.
  • The RISSafe Online Training Program was launched on the RISS Officer Safety web site, which all law enforcement officers can access by logging on to their RISSNet user account (www.riss.net) or by registering at the VALOR web site (www.valorforblue.org).
  • Substantial progress was made to connect three disparate deconfliction systems and provide a nationwide deconfliction search capability with a single sign-on. RISSafe and Case Explorer (a case management system) have established connectivity and plans are underway to connect the HIDTA system in 2014.

To learn more about RISSafe, visit www.riss.net/Resources/RISSafe.

Smart Policing Initiative

BJA's Smart Policing Initiative (SPI) provides financial and technical assistance to law enforcement agencies seeking to build evidence-based best practices that improve policing performance—as measured by reduced crime, higher closure rates, and saved costs. Strong collaboration between law enforcement and their research partners is a defining characteristic of SPI. SPI grantees are required to partner with research practitioners at every stage of the project, leveraging their capacity to objectively identify pressing crime issues through data-driven research and crime analysis, develop strategic and tactical solutions to those issues, and devise an evaluation plan to collect and analyze data that measure the impact of police strategies. Research partnerships and the information they produce not only help to reduce crime, they also increase agency accountability and transparency. To date, BJA has provided more than $14.4 million to 35 agencies conducting 38 unique projects with their research partners.

As a result of SPI, jurisdictions across the country are now using evidence-based research and technical assistance from nationally recognized subject matter experts to reduce and prevent violent crime. SPI not only creates safer communities, but also makes a sound fiscal investment. Research shows that violent crimes (e.g., rape and sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, homicide) are costly (ranging from several hundred thousand to several million dollars, per crime event); thus reducing and preventing violent crime in any community not only (and most importantly) prevents harm to individuals and communities, but yields millions in fiscal savings to jurisdictions.

SPI is a component of BJA's Smart Suite of programs, which includes prosecution, indigent defense, probation, and pretrial initiatives. (See Smart Suite Programs for more information about BJA's Smart Suite.)

Response to SPI has been positive. For example, Philadelphia Police Commissioner Charles Ramsey and Deputy Commissioner Nola Joyce provided commentary on SPI in the September 2013 issue of Police Quarterly: "With a targeted, research-based approach, we can use our resources more effectively. Leveraging research is a key component of policing smarter. The more we understand, the more we can work toward creating a safer community for us all."

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • Indio, California: The Indio Police Department, working with its research partner from the University of California, Riverside, identified a chronic problem with residential burglary. Further analysis revealed a predictive link between school truancy and residential burglary. The research partner developed and validated a predictive model based on truancy, while the Indio SPI team implemented a multipronged community-policing strategy to engage schools, parents, and the business community in intervention and prevention-oriented tactics to reduce burglaries. The project evaluation reveals a 16 percent decline in burglaries and an 8 percent decline in thefts in the targeted geographic areas.
  • New Haven, Connecticut: The New Haven Police Department SPI used a supplementary foot patrol strategy to reduce violence and the number of shooting incidents in one of the city's most violent neighborhoods, Newhallville. Over the 13-week intervention period, the Newhallville neighborhood saw a 19 percent reduction in violent crime neighborhoodwide and a 36 percent reduction in violent crime within the high-risk areas. In the 13 weeks following the intervention, there was a further 41 percent drop in violent crime at the neighborhood level and a 56 percent drop in the high-risk areas.

To learn more about SPI, visit www.smartpolicinginitiative.com.

State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training Program

BJA's State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program provides law enforcement personnel with specialized training and resources to combat domestic terrorism and violent criminal extremism, covering topics such as international/domestic terrorism, violent criminal extremism, radicalization, and more. SLATT instructors have worked on many of the nation's most notorious terrorism cases and have an indepth understanding of terrorism, pre-event planning, and investigative procedures. Their expert knowledge gives state, local, and tribal law enforcement professionals the tools and skills that they can use in their daily duties to safeguard communities and do their jobs more safely.

Since its inception, SLATT has trained more than 136,400 law enforcement professionals in 1,335 events. In FY 2013, the program trained 8,577 law enforcement professionals at 64 events. As a trusted training partner to United States Attorney's Offices (USAO), SLATT has delivered 266 terrorism-prevention events that were hosted/cohosted by USAOs in 48 states from 2008 to 2013. SLATT continues to be in high demand by the law enforcement field, with more than 120 agencies on the waiting list for this training.

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • SLATT's Workshops on the Web (WOW) initiative allows students to download workshop materials. Every time a student downloads material, it saves the program printing, shipping, and labor costs. Between June and September 2013, class participants downloaded 2,993 files.
  • In collaboration with the International Association of Chiefs of Police Committee on Terrorism, SLATT produced the acclaimed training video, "Sovereign Citizen Encounters", featuring an introduction by retired Chief Robert Paudert, whose son, Officer Brandon Paudert, was gunned down by a sovereign citizen. The video is available through IACP or the SLATT password-protected web site.
  • SLATT responded to a surge in need for TTA related to the criminal element of the sovereign citizen movement by delivering 38 specialized training events to 5,946 law enforcement participants and developing related online tools.
  • SLATT.org received 105,101 visits from 20,670 registered law enforcement professionals.

To learn more about the SLATT Program, visit www.slatt.org.

Public Safety Officers' Benefits Program

The Public Safety Officers' Benefits (PSOB) Program provides vital death and education benefits to survivors of fallen law enforcement officers, firefighters, and other first responders as well as disability benefits to officers catastrophically injured in the line of duty. PSOB is a unique effort of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ); local, state, tribal, and federal public safety organizations; and national organizations.

During FY 2013, BJA's PSOB Office received 294 new death claims and 90 new disability claims. In FY 2013, a total of 160 death cases (from various fiscal years) were determined at the PSOB Office level; of these 160 cases, 120 were approved, and benefits paid to the survivors. A total of 44 disability cases were determined at the PSOB Office level in FY 2013, with 17 of the cases approved for payment. Also in FY 2013, 293 education claims were approved for funding to spouses and children to enable family members to pursue their dreams of higher education.

The PSOB Office continued to collaborate with the Concerns of Police Survivors and the National Fallen Firefighters Foundation to conduct proactive outreach to public safety agencies nationwide to increase awareness about the PSOB death, disability, and education programs; provide effective assistance when filing PSOB claims; and offer meaningful peer support and counseling services to survivors of America's fallen officers.

For information and resources on PSOB's death, disability, and education programs, visit www.psob.gov.

High-Performing Prosecution/Community Prosecution

BJA's Enhancing Community Prosecution through the National High Performance Prosecution (HPP) Framework Initiative is based on a model for prosecutors published by BJA and the Association of Prosecuting Attorneys (APA). The HPP Framework supports efforts to reduce violent crime and improve community safety through four components: (1) embracing community prosecution, (2) harnessing science and technology, (3) implementing information sharing, and (4) employing outcome evaluation. These four components also provide a structure for examining the opportunities and resource needs of today's prosecutors.

In FY 2013, APA trained more than 300 prosecutors via webinar on issues related to the HPP Framework and the criminal justice system. Topics included prosecutorial ethics and Brady obligations, establishment of mental health courts, and prosecution and racial justice issues. APA also conducted numerous peer-to-peer onsite technical assistance visits to jurisdictions such as Portland, Oregon (Brady obligations); Chicago, Illinois (overcoming the no-snitch campaign); San Francisco, California (implementing neighborhood courts and a crime strategies unit); and Norfolk, Virginia (officewide community prosecution training).

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • The San Francisco District Attorney's Office is successfully diverting cases from the formal criminal justice system under its Neighborhood Court Program. There are 10 neighborhood courts across the city, with more than 60 adjudicators serving on them and a waitlist of over 30 additional community members who wish to serve. In 2013, the District Attorney's Office sent 651 cases to neighborhood court. Learn more about this program at the San Francisco District Attorney's web site: www.sfdistrictattorney.org/index.aspx?page=178.
  • Portland, Oregon codified Brady v. Maryland, and APA has been requested to provide officewide and statewide training in an effort to educate prosecutors on their discovery obligations under the new law.

To learn more about the HPP Framework, visit APA's web site at www.apainc.org/programs/high-performanceprosecution or see BJA's FY 2012 solicitation at www.bja.gov/Funding/12EnsuringProceduralJusticeSol.pdf.

Coordinated Tribal Assistance Solicitation

In FY 2013, BJA continued to support DOJ's Coordinated Tribal Assistance Solicitation (CTAS) initiative, which enables tribes to submit a single application for all DOJ tribal government-specific competitive solicitations. The CTAS approach allows federally recognized tribes and tribal consortia to develop a comprehensive approach to public safety and victimization by responding to multiple "purpose areas." BJA funds projects in three of the CTAS purpose areas:

  • Purpose Area #2: Comprehensive strategic planning for tribal justice systems to improve public safety and community wellness.
  • Purpose Area #3: Develop and enhance the operation of tribal justice systems and prevent and reduce alcohol- and substance abuse-related crimes.
  • Purpose Area #4: Plan, renovate, or construct correctional and/or correctional alternative facilities.

In FY 2013, 219 tribes submitted applications for BJA purpose areas, and 53 grant awards were approved for funding, totaling more than $24 million.

Purpose Area #2: Comprehensive Tribal Justice Strategic Planning Program

BJA's Comprehensive Tribal Justice Strategic Planning Program (CTJSPP) supports federally recognized tribes as they engage in the tribal justice system planning process. Two BJA TTA providers, Fox Valley Technical College's National Criminal Justice Training Center and the Center for Court Innovation, offer extensive CTJSPP guidance and support. This support equips grantees to conduct community needs assessments and develop comprehensive strategic plans that respond to the needs and strengths of their individual tribal communities. A central element of this TTA involves ongoing mentor relationships to facilitate the planning process. The mentor-based approach gives grantees consistent contact with experts familiar with their unique program needs. This method has proven successful over the past year.

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • The Northern California Intertribal Court System (NCICS) created a strategic plan to develop an overarching sustainable justice system for consortium member tribes. The consortium is composed of four member tribes: Hopland Band of Pomo Indians (Hopland Tribe), Cahto Tribe of the Laytonville Rancheria (Cahto Tribe), Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians (Coyote Valley Tribe), and Manchester-Point Arena Band of Pomo Indians (Manchester Point Arena). As part of the strategic plan, each member tribe will have its own set of ordinances and its own tribal court. In 2013, NCICS conducted community assessments, prepared community profiles, and examined the unique justice system requirements of each member tribe. The information gathered was reviewed and a written strategic plan was developed.

To learn more about tribal strategic planning TTA, visit www.ncjtc.org/TJSPP/Pages/default.aspx.

Purpose Area #3: Tribal Court Assistance Program

BJA's Tribal Court Assistance Program, as part of DOJ's Indian Country Law Enforcement Initiative, administers grants to support the development, implementation, enhancement, and continuing operation of tribal judicial systems. BJA's Tribal Courts TTA providers, including the National Tribal Judicial Center (TJC) at the National Judicial College, conducted 7 trainings serving approximately 400 tribal court practitioners.

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • The Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate Tribe designed and implemented a court-management software system to respond to a burgeoning drug problem on its reservation. The court-management system enables the tribe to streamline the prosecution of approximately 2,000 criminal proceedings, including approximately 50 jury trials, per year. The system maintains the criminal calendar, produces important documents, tracks criminal history, and enables the tribe to look at possible implementation of the Tribal Law and Order Act.
  • The Quileute Nation learned to address the challenge of providing substance abuse services for its members after the recent pullout of its on-reservation treatment provider. During a TJC Tribal Court Management of Alcohol and Drug Cases course, a team from the Nation developed an action plan and then returned home to implement the plan. Within about 2 weeks, the Nation started contracting for services with an off-reservation provider about 20 miles away.

Purpose Area #3: Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Program

BJA's Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Program (IASAP) provides funding and TTA to help federally recognized tribal governments plan, implement, or enhance strategies to address crime issues related to alcohol and substance abuse. The IASAP TTA provider, Fox Valley Technical College's National Criminal Justice Training Center, implemented online discussion boards and best practice webinars to enhance communications for IASAP grantees.

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • The Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate Tribe expanded its adult drug court, working with South Dakota to accept tribal members convicted in state courts of nonviolent felony drug and alcohol offenses. Since this program started, the tribe has successfully diverted 150 tribal citizens from prison.
  • The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin developed a strategy to create a tribal community service program for young offenders. The Lac Courte Oreilles Tribal Courts conducted community assessments to investigate the overall strengths and weaknesses of local systems, identify gaps in services, and plan improvements to existing programs. The tribal courts are using the information gathered through the needs assessments to develop a comprehensive 10-year Tribal Action Plan, and they will continue to work with other service providers to implement the plan.

To learn more about IASAP TTA, visit www.ncjtc.org/iasap.

Purpose Area #4: Tribal Justice System Infrastructure Program

The Tribal Justice System Infrastructure Program—formerly the Correctional Systems and Correctional Alternatives on Tribal Lands Program—provides site-based grants and funding for TTA projects to assist tribes with adult and juvenile detention and rehabilitative efforts.

A total of 20 tribes received BJA grants for the construction and/or renovation of justice facilities in Indian Country under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. During FY 2013, the following projects completed construction or activated facilities:

  • Rosebud Sioux Tribe/Rosebud Sioux Adult Correctional Facility (156-bed adult detention): Construction complete October 2012.
  • Navajo Nation-Tuba City/ Tuba City Adult Correctional Facility (132-bed adult detention): Construction complete February 2013.
  • Colorado River Indian Tribes/New Hope Youth Development Center (38-bed juvenile detention): Construction complete March 2013.

Tribal Drug Endangered Children Training

BJA funded the National Alliance for Drug Endangered Children (National DEC) to create the Tribal Drug Endangered Children (Tribal DEC) Training Program. The culturally tailored training curriculum raises awareness about issues and concerns of drug endangered children in Indian Country while fostering collaboration between practitioners at all levels of intervention. The training teaches law enforcement, child protection, prosecutors, judges, probation, medical personnel, treatment providers, teachers, and other professionals to use a collaborative approach to identify, protect, and serve drug endangered children and break the multigenerational cycles of neglect and abuse. Tribal DEC training is provided in approximately 25 tribal communities and at state, regional, and national conferences.

FY 2013 accomplishments include the following:

  • Developed an online interactive Tribal DEC training that is available free of charge.
  • Completed the training and certification of more than 100 Tribal DEC trainers representing more than 40 tribes and Alaska Native communities.

To learn more about National DEC, visit www.nationaldec.org.